The mammalian respiratory and cardiovascular systems are inseparably integrated such that manipulation of one system has consequences for the other. My program seeks to further our understanding of this fundamental biological relationship. The long-term objective of my research program is to understand how the human respiratory and cardiovascular systems interact, respond and adapt to physiological stressors such as exercise or hypoxia. Two themes are currently being pursued. The ﬁrst theme explores respiratory inﬂuences on neurovascular control. The focus of the second theme is to better understand how biological sex inﬂuences the inter-relationships between airway anatomy, respiratory mechanics, distribution of blood ﬂow, and skeletal muscle fatigue.